Meaning is not always clear.

Meaning of words is not always clear. Read and interpret with care.

London Taxi: Traditionally painted black

Meaning Not Always Clear. Courage Amid Controversy.

Columbia College basketball team 1931. First black captain of college basketball team and two time all-american.

George Gregory, All-American

First Black All-American Basketball 1931. Elected captain of Columbia College basketball team amid controversy.

George won in a secret ballot. Coach did not like result.

Had demanded a second vote by open outcry.

Scholarship students threatened with loss of scholarship if voted for “wrong” person. They did not risk their scholarship.

Graduating students voted for George. Tie vote. 

One courageous teammate with no scholarship cast the deciding vote—for George—Arthur Lautkin.